The Journal of Higher Education: Vol. Constructivists see the learner as a constructor of knowledge. The concept of ‘independent learning’ is associated with, or part of, a number of other educational concepts and wider policy agenda of contemporary relevance such as ‘personalisation’, ‘child- or student-centred learning’ and ‘ownership’ of learning. Social learning theories help us to understand how people learn in social contexts (learn from each other) and informs us on how we, as teachers, construct active learning communities. Constructivism really got its start in the late 1980s. As university level teachers, we have a professional responsibility creating optimal learning environments for our students, but students themselves must be committed to their own learning success. Keep at it until you understand what you need to do. For some authors and researchers, self-directed learning is simply a method of organising instruction. Discussions: If you want to expand an argument but are stuck for ideas, get a debate with friends or peers. 3. Independent Learning Theory is related to the following terms: 79 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<8C27256813F1CD298F3AE06CD68684B9>]/Index[67 22]/Info 66 0 R/Length 71/Prev 158548/Root 68 0 R/Size 89/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream h��UmO�0�+�q�P��;��e��H��ⵑҤJ��~>;�k�����;ߝ���I A … Toward a Theory of Independent Learning and Teaching. In this post, we explore the work of John Dewey on experiential and interactive learning. Not every student is going to work at the same pace. Fluency continues to develop as a reader engages with texts of expanding vocabulary and sophisticated concep… No, independent learning does not mean working on your own. Read actively: Be an active reader, pay close attention to the words you are reading and their meaning. endstream endobj 68 0 obj <> endobj 69 0 obj <> endobj 70 0 obj <>stream Theory. The aim here is a gradual, step-by-step transfer of responsibility from the teacher to the student. The theories are treated in four parts: a short historical introduction, a discussion of the view of knowledge presupposed by the theory, an account of how the theory treats learning and student motivation, and, finally, an overview of some of the instructional methods promoted by the theory is presented. In so doing, they hope that the pupils in their charge can take control of their own learning – both inside the classroom and beyond. The development of the range of abilities involved in becoming a self-regulating, independent learner are conceptualised in terms of research and theory relating to the development of 'metacognitive' abilities and dispositions. Constructivism is a learning theory that attempts to explain how learners learn by constructing understanding for everyone. M… In the last post we examined the work of Mihály Csíkszentmihályi on Flow Theory. In other words, social learning tends to precede (i.e., come before) development. �!�L��@����X���7�gt0 �+)� $��|9��B��Q���T��� ���(��cr���S�ke�� Banksy is of the opinion that “A lot of people never use their initiative because no-one told them to” (Banksy). Independent study involves processing, methodology and philosophy of education whereby a learner acquires knowledge and develops the ability for enquiry and critical evaluation. You may well find that you share a problem with another student on your course or even in another discipline. 88 0 obj <>stream An interesting question arises whether self-directed learning implies a lifelong education. Becoming an independent learner has many benefits, but the focus of this piece is upon the connection between independent learning and the improvement of student psychological well-being. (1973). Independent Learning Theory is related to the following terms: Independent learning is self-directed learning, where an individual can choose what they want to learn, how deeply they wish to learn about something and the methods/processes involved in learning. 44, No. Flexibility for different levels of intelligence. Discussion of independent learning frequently arises in the context of important issues such as student-teacher roles and relationships, and the role of information and communications technology (ICT) in learning. Independent learning is a method or learning process where learners have ownership and control of their learning – they learn by their own actions and direct, regulate, and assess their own learning. Independent learning is a self-guided process wherein the learning works to expand their knowledge and skills. Independent learning (IL) is learning in which the learning goals, method or direction to achieve the learning goals, and regulation of learning process is decided, guided and managed by the learner. For example, it can be used to help researchers understand how aggression and violence might be transmitted through observational learning. �>O/2�Ju��bE.�f��v��e�d��,�jY*�$�j}mn��M1٦��! Kolb’s Experiential Theory. Student book boxes or book bags should reflect this requirement. Communication of learning goals between a student and the advising instructor … When reading independently students are exposed to new words in meaningful contexts. Providing materials for independent writing; Theory to practice ; Evidence base; Links to VEYLDF; Experience plans and videos ; Links to learning foci and teaching practices: References; This section covers additional theories and pedagogical strategies to develop children’s independent engagement with texts focussing on emergent readers and writers. In the 1990s, constructivist books abounded. This expectation exists at other levels of education, particularly as students progress to the final year of high school. ?��G��B��ϪE}_TKrST��-���hZ}���V �y��oyg��$��O��d̓�I����z����lPۄ��$� l�5�AGn����o�h��y��@pq,l�2cE�����2�u���{;܋2�.1�i��F�|�#F����b�}V��ی:9���nxݰ��_�[�m��DL�4���G��$'�#�hZ���2T�a(�Qԇ?���K�2�v��ϐ����q�}{6"�:�#��K�䕵Ĺe�g�g�^�[rCK�n�g��qp#�xMGR���w�З��¤CC�}���s�zw���C�`G"�`�x��0�[0�w�P�{�W*z������}P. Independent Learning Theory 17th November 2020 Independent study involves processing, methodology and philosophy of education whereby a learner acquires knowledge and develops the ability for enquiry and critical evaluation. W�1�Օ6kY�ћY3b����g9o�E��-���H���xlv~�ï�l�.��t�M��G���i��Óz��v�]�J�L9�7_T�\isJɩr�g1����� ��N����(�%�*�k�"�v�����SV�U��7\���lu��Z�1 Constructivist Theory. If you need help, ask for it! Most influential theories of learning Learning is defined as a process that brings together personal and environmental experiences and influences for acquiring, enriching or modifying one’s knowledge, skills, values, attitudes, behaviour and world views. Learning … If independent learning is not a common feature of your class, then … In IL there is no external intervention on what, when and how to learn. Different sources: When doing research, try gathering from different sources. Discussion . When readers reread familiar texts or texts where the decoding requirement is minimalised, greater attention can be placed on building meaning (Konza, 2016). These are aspects of the learning experience that students must control for themselves. Educators (experts) may act as facilitators or guides. Independent learning is buzz term that has been around for several years within education but what is it all about? Effective time management: Break each project down into the relevant tasks, work out how long you will need to spend on each part, then allocate time in your diary in order of priority. Promoting Self Learning On Your Own Terms. This transition may be especially difficult for international students who may be used to more support and direction. This section will explore the constructivist learning theory by defining constructivism, providing varying views of constructivism, and illustrating how constructivism relates to independent learning and higher education. This helps in thinking about an element you hadn’t considered before. Skim read: Speed read or skim material before reading it in detail and then summarising the text in your notes. Go solo: Practice working individually for long periods of time. Fluency is another important element supported through independent reading. �|�Pn��}w8X�;��&�[email protected]����"[email protected]��� ����w7/g7a9����8��� As is the case with many terms commonly used in higher education learning, such as ‘critical thinking’, ‘independent learning’ can mean different things to different … On the other hand, lifelong learning provides people with skills and competencies required to continue their own self-education beyond the end of of formal schooling. Learning takes place through the student’s activity. Definitions of Independent Learning  – Initial Overview The concept of independ ent learning is not new, but  is it one on which there is  a surprising lack of consensus as to what it means  (Broad, 2006). Summary: The Montessori Method is an approach to learning which emphasizes active learning, independence, cooperation, and learning in harmony with each child’s unique pace of development. Use questioning as scaffolding to independent learning. %%EOF According to the definition of lifelong education adopted by the UNESCO Institute of Education, it should possess the following characteristics: An important distinction regarding self-directed learning is whether it’s global or a process. Seek help where necessary: Asking for support and advice is an important part. Academic staff are responsible for the intentional design of the curriculum and its quality-content, the ways in which it is delivered, and the ways in which student achievement of desired learning outcomes is assessed. However, Candy has a more enlightened view of this issue: The relationship between self-directed learning and lifelong education is a reciprocal one. Behaviorism is a learning theory that only focuses on objectively observable behaviors and discounts any independent activities of the mind. Originator: Maria Montessori (1870-1952), Italian teacher and physician Keywords: absorbent mind, sensitive period, prepared environment, autoeducation, planes of development ��$���XJ BH����.��� ��������p ���� �q�O� �a David Kolb, an American education … Another way to understand independent study is to understand learning from a distance. Kolb’s Experiential Learning Cycle. High psychological distress levels appear to start in the first year of university education. Unlike Piaget's notion that childrens' development must necessarily precede their learning, Vygotsky argued, "learning is a necessary and universal aspect of the process of developing culturally organized, specifically human psychological function" (1978, p. 90). My plan is to work through the alphabet of psychologists and provide a brief overview of their theories, and how each can be applied in education. %PDF-1.5 %���� However, academic staff cannot be responsible for the entire student experience. He states that these terms such as “self-planning learning, inquiry method, independent learning, self-education, self-instruction, self-teaching, self-study and autonomous learning” (p18) are strongly related to the learner acquiring knowledge in isolation. Lev Vygotsky (1962), a Russian teacher and psychologist, first stated that we learn through our interactions and communications with others. Independent Learning is learning that is self-directed. The teacher must develop effective classroom discourse, asking higher order, open-ended questions, responding flexibly to students’ responses to promote thinking, problem-solving skills and deeper understanding. 661-679. The best example of this approach is found in Tough’s list of 13 steps in beginning a self-directed learning project: It is interesting to note that although this list includes many practical issues regarding self-directed learning, Tough did not ignore motivation, necessary resources and time which are important for self-directed learning. Choose your sources carefully. Independent studies provide students opportunities to explore their interests deeper and make important decisions about how and where they will direct their talents in the future. 9, pp. Charles Wedemeyer (1981) rooted his Theory of Independent Study in the ideal of learner freedom. All teachers want to develop their students into independent learners. Behavior theorists define learning as nothing more than the acquisition of new behavior based on environmental conditions. We cannot control how much individual efforts a student to devote to their own study, or how serious, motivated they are to learn and make the most of the learning opportunities available to them. The learning is defined, organised and completed by the learner. The answer is “no” because it is clear that an individual can elect to complete only one self-directed learning course and not choose to continue with any form of education. Independent Learning is often linked with other approaches to learning such as personalisation, student -centred learning and ownership of l earning. h�b```f``����@ (���7r�������uz�M��*�"�0 New learning … This section provides a brief introduction to each type of learning theory. Set learning goals. Set goals: Think what you want to get out of your work and remind yourself next time you’re flagging. Teaching is individualized. But many people did not know how to label what they were doing. 0 Lead to the systematic acquisition, renewal, upgrading and completion of knowledge, skills, and attitudes made necessary by the constantly changing conditions in which people now live, Have promotion of the self-fulfillment of each individual, Acknowledge all available educational influences, including formal, non-formal, and informal, Be dependent for its successful implementation on people’s increasing ability and motivation to engage in self-directed learning activities, Deciding what knowledge and skill to learn, Deciding the specific activities, methods, resources, or equipment for learning, Setting specific deadlines or intermediate targets, Deciding the beginning of learning episode, Deciding the pace during a learning episode, Estimating the current level and progress of knowledge and skill, Detecting any factor that’s hindering learning, Obtaining the desired resources or equipment, Saving or obtain the money necessary for the use of certain human or nonhuman resources, Taking certain steps to increase the motivation for learning. Experiments by behaviorists identify conditioning as a universal learning process. However, the learner is encouraged to plot their own path and to value their own research as well as input from peers on the same level as information and guidance that they may gain from teachers (experts). independent learning in English Nursery and Reception classrooms. Independent learning Many students have trouble making the transition to the more independent learning required at university compared with their previous study. h�bbd``b`� $��. On the one hand, self-directed learning is one of the most common ways in which adults pursue learning throughout their life span as well as being a way in which people supplement learning received in formal settings. means that the child is reading the lesson in the text (or watching the video The normal processes of teaching and learning are carried out in writing or through some other medium. 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