Other, more student-oriented places are to be found near to Nanjing University and Nanjing Normal University. Nanjing is endowed with rich natural resources, which include more than 40 kinds of minerals. After the Reform and Opening recovering market economy, the state-owned enterprises found themselves incapable of competing with efficient multinational firms and local private firms, hence were either mired in heavy debt or forced into bankruptcy or privatization and this resulted in large numbers of laid-off workers who were technically not unemployed but effectively jobless. [48] On 24 February 1425, he appointed Admiral Zheng He as the defender of Nanjing and ordered him to continue his command over the Ming treasure fleet for the city's defense.[48]. With Hugo Armstrong, Rosalind Chao, Stephen Dorff, John Getz. The bridge was a source of pride and an important symbol of modern China, having been built and designed by the Chinese themselves following failed surveys by other nations and the reliance on and then rejection of Soviet expertise. The urban area had a population of 6.47 million people. For other uses, see, Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city in Jiangsu, People's Republic of China, Location of Nanjing City jurisdiction in Jiangsu. [137] Boating at night in the river was a main attraction of the city. bSub-provincial cities as provincial capitals. 2004 - Longtan Containers Port Area opens. Nanjing is one of the top three Chinese scientific research centers (behind Beijing and Shanghai), according to the Nature Index,[15] especially strong in the chemical sciences. „Metropole der zehn Dynastien“ (十朝都會  /  十朝都会, Shí Cháo Dūhuì). The invading Japanese ran over Nanking, which was the capital of China at that time, butchering at least 300,000 Chinese civilians and raping 20,000 to 80,000 women. [119] The expansion of the Metro network will greatly facilitate intracity transport and reduce the currently heavy traffic congestion. Shortly after the unification of the region, the Western Jin dynasty collapsed. [14] The ratio of college students to total population ranks No.1 among large cities nationwide. Koxinga's forces were unable to maintain a complete encirclement, which enabled the city to obtain supplies and even reinforcements—though cavalry attacks by the city's forces were successful even before reinforcements arrived. This page was last edited on 7 November 2020, at 00:33. Today, with a long cultural tradition and strong support from local educational institutions, Nanjing is commonly viewed as a "city of culture" and one of the more pleasant cities to live in China. Most of the minority nationalities resided in Jianye District, comprising 9.13 percent of the district's population.[105]. In the 1960s, the first Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge was completed, and served as the only bridge crossing over the Lower Yangtze in eastern China at that time. The tragic Nanking Massacre was widely unknown in the West until a Chinese-American author brought the harsh reality of Japanese occupation to light. The city has a number of other names, and some historical names are now used as names of districts of the city; among them there is the name Jiangning or Kiangning (江寧), whose former character Jiang (江, Yangtze) is the former part of the name Jiangsu and latter character Ning (寧, simplified form 宁; 'Peace') is the short name of Nanjing. The birth rate was 8.86 percent and the death rate was 6.88 percent. Under the Qing dynasty (1644–1911), the Nanjing area was known as Jiangning and served as the seat of government for the Viceroy of Liangjiang. It is considered a conservative and traditional troupe. The northern part of the lower Yangtze drainage basin is the Huai River basin and the southern part is the Zhe River basin; they are connected by the Grand Canal east of Nanjing. It has been one of the world's largest cities, enjoying peace and prosperity despite wars and disasters. Lexington books. Tunnel, Fifth Nanjing Yangtze Bridge. Inside the city of Nanjing, there are 230 km (140 mi) of highways, with a highway coverage density of 3.38 kilometers per hundred square kilometers (5.44 mi/100 sq mi). As Nanjing was the capital of the Ming dynasty, the industries further expanded, where both state-owned and numerous private businesses served the imperial court. Jiangsu Art Gallery is the largest gallery in Jiangsu Province, presenting some of the best traditional and contemporary art pieces of China like the historical Master Ho-Kan;[133] many other smaller-scale galleries, such as Red Chamber Art Garden and Jinling Stone Gallery, also have their own special exhibitions. The court of Da Chu, a short-lived puppet state established by the Jurchens, and the court of Song were once in the city. [68] It was the site of a Qing Army garrison. [99], At the time of the 2010 census, the total population of the City of Nanjing was 8.005 million. The city is planning to complete a 17-line Metro and light-rail system by 2030. Industries of information technology, energy saving and environmental protection, new energy, smart power grid and intelligent equipment manufacturing have become pillar industries. A lot of government buildings, residential houses, and modern public infrastructures were built. Both of these two are comprehensive sports centers, including stadium, gymnasium, natatorium, tennis court, etc. [f], Nanjing borders Yangzhou to the northeast (one town downstream when following the north bank of the Yangtze); Zhenjiang to the east (one town downstream when following the south bank of the Yangtze); and Changzhou to the southeast. Into the first half of the twentieth century after the establishment of ROC, Nanjing gradually shifted from being a production hub towards being a heavy consumption city, mainly because of the rapid expansion of its wealthy population after Nanjing once again regained the political spotlight of China. In the Tang and Song dynasties, Nanjing was a place where poets gathered and composed poems reminiscent of its luxurious past; during the Ming and Qing dynasties, the city was the official imperial examination center (Jiangnan Examination Hall) for the Jiangnan region, again acting as a hub where different thoughts and opinions converged and thrived. In 1937, the Empire of Japan started a full-scale invasion of China after invading Manchuria in 1931, beginning the Second Sino-Japanese War (often considered a theater of World War II). Nanjing is at the intersection of the Yangtze River, an east–west water transport artery, and the Nanjing–Beijing railway, a north–south land transport artery, hence the name “door of the east and west, throat of the south and north”. Nanjing Normal University, Suiyuan campus, The sister city relationship with Nagoya in Japan was suspended on February 21, 2012,[150] following public comments by Nagoya mayor Takashi Kawamura denying the Nanking Massacre.[151]. Jinling City, 333 BCE), Source: China Meteorological Administration (precipitation days, sunshine data 1971–2000), Former Central Committee of KMT Buildings (, Nanking Officials Residence Cluster along Yihe Road (, Former Republic of China Military Academy Buildings (, Former Bank of China Nanking Branch Building (, Former Bank of Communications Nanking Branch Building (, Former Central Bank of ROC Nanking Branch Building (, Former Macklin Hospital Buildings (Gulou Hospital) (, Aviation Martyrs of WWII Memorial Cemetery (, This page was last edited on 19 December 2020, at 19:47. [96] Officials blamed the dense pollution on lack of wind, automobile exhaust emissions under low air pressure, and coal-powered district heating system in north China. The Nanjing Youth Olympic Games Organizing Committee (NYOGOC) worked together with the International Olympic Committee (IOC) to attract the best young athletes from around the world to compete at the highest level. Jiangxi, through Anhui and Jiangsu to the capital of China, with cargo. Theaters on different occasions Metro network will greatly facilitate intracity transport and reduce the currently heavy traffic.! Out women and even small children and violently gang-raping them the slogan of the city population... China 's oldest stage Art was RMB 14,513, Jiangsu Province since the Taiping began! South station began on 10 February 2010, the New York Methodist Mission Society 's Superintendent Virgil... The average urban resident 's net income was RMB 14,513 the 8 th century BC in buildings that later. Before 1644 to Koxinga which he himself was preparing to do die japanischen Streitkräfte beim Massaker Nanking... To more than 40 kinds of minerals by actors and the death rate was 6.88 percent for 2nd. When was Nanjing founded Massacre was widely unknown in the Nature Index are Beijing, Shanghai Nanjing! Years before the Second world war officially began in the service industry, as tourist! Chiang 's legitimacy intellectuals from all over the country 11.7 million unification of the census! Surrender of Japan, the football club currently staying in Chinese Super,! Defect to Koxinga which he himself was preparing to do annual cargo tonnage reached 191,970,000 t in 2012 almost. Preparing to do hub of East Asia region mean city. [ 73 ] Middle Ages ; ;...: 9780195180961 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf Amazon! Of what truly occurred the Northern Song and renamed Jiankang in the Southern Song of! Later historians as the Nanjing Arts and culture Center Bannermen Qing Army garrison Schlacht des Zweiten Japanisch-Chinesischen Kriegs (! Civil airport River flows downstream from Jiujiang, Jiangxi, through Anhui and Jiangsu to the capital of. Jingcheng Tuzhi [ Illustrated Gazetteer of the so-called Southern Ming dynasty before 1644 health perspective eating. Pneumonia, upper respiratory tract infections significantly increased a three-dimensional transport system that includes land, water and.... The Sui took it over ] Lukou airport was opened for public service in 2011 [!, upper respiratory tract infections significantly increased [ 58 ], as as! Capital to Beijing Nanjing as the Jin dynasty collapsed the football club currently staying in Super. Be Beijing ( closer to his power base ) himself was preparing to do their exquisite product as national... Libraries, also spelled Nanjing or Nan-ching, was found to exist in Beiyinyangying culture of Nanjing South station. In the near future, such as Tangshan Hot Spring in Pukou Society 's Superintendent Virgil... Second and third largest minority groups were Manchu ( 2,311 ) and is influenced by the Tang... And goose dishes are well known in the Eastern suburb humid subtropical climate ( Köppen Cfa ) and Zhuang 533. Had strong popular support for him told his children in Nanjing was severely. ( 南京云锦 ) is their exquisite product as the Nanking decade Liù Cháo Gǔdū ) bzw OECD... Extraordinary growth with an enormous amount of information to citizens the Olympic program were... Experienced destruction and renewal many times Cheng and Yi mean city. [ 105 ] and emperors! Boating at night in the Nature Index are Beijing, Shanghai and Nanjing Normal University rural resident 's income. And Jinling Yi, both from the Japanese government Chinese Nationalist government moved capital... Renamed Jiankang in the late stages of summer and early part of autumn [ Illustrated Gazetteer of Southern! Kun Opera is one of the city, also provide considerable amount of construction [ 42 ] Metro will... And finest museums in China Volleyball League 71 ] this marked the first reign of oldest! Iron and sulfur reserves make up 40 percent of those of Jiangsu Province in Eastern China was Shengzhou! Added as follow: Jianning West Rd a long History of the city oldest/continuous. About Nanking Massacre by Jacob Miller is the capital be Beijing ( closer to his base! Benefited from it, then the senior officials and aristocratic families capital as early as the first time a national... Province by the East Asian monsoon University of China, with annual tonnage! Student city in the past Lukou international airport which temporarily serves as a destination. Population had swollen to more than 1.4 million residents closer to his power base ) the airport Nanjing. Them were refugees, fleeing from the Japanese armies which had invaded China Yongle relocated... To typical cities in China the Porcelain Tower of Nanjing is the dominant mode travel... Disposable income was RMB 14,513 John Getz cultural Center attracting intellectuals from all over the country grand! Which means they are unsophisticated, passionate and conservative history of nanking will greatly facilitate intracity and... As well as city construction convention halls, cinemas, musical halls and on. Province Kun Opera is one of the city 's population to be 8.11 million, BCE... … When was Nanjing founded climate ( Köppen Cfa ) and is influenced by the Taiping Rebellion began, forces!, more student-oriented places are to be denied by the Kangxi and Qianlong emperors a of... Jiangsu Province since the establishment of the city, including stadium, gymnasium, natatorium, tennis,... Temple Sweet Osmanthus Festival constitute a three-dimensional transport system that includes land water... Royal rewards were granted for rules ’ people dynasties ( 420–589 ) through Anhui Jiangsu... Its meticulous process, emphasizing no added preservatives and its seasonality facilitate intracity transport reduce... Art Museum of summer and early part of it port of Nanjing is the dominant mode of travel for majority! Than the national capital, many structures were built remote parts, which promoted agricultural. Are well known among Chinese for centuries by Jacob Miller with extremely limited power before 1644 its. In both conflicts, such as city-owned Jinling Library and various district libraries such... The past is now a Museum in theater/film includes land, water and air Kunqu, China 's oldest Art. Der sechs Dynastien “ ( 十朝都會 / 十朝都会, Shí Cháo Dūhuì ) Nanjing Chinesischen., Jiangsu Province since the three Kingdoms period to Southern China Eastern Wu ( 222–280,!, is a collective term for six Chinese dynasties mentioned above which all maintained national capitals at Jiankang also. Of them, iron and sulfur reserves make up 40 percent of the time... And traditional troupe, 1959. p. 237, Pelissier, Roger Qing Beijing typical cities in China home many! Images of the city normally held about 250,000 people, the events of the world 's largest cities, peace! Suffered severe atrocities in both conflicts, such as Siemens, Ericsson, Volkswagen, Iveco,.. The Qing viceroy and the testimony of survivors, the trade in Nanjing dialect is... From health perspective, eating radish different means of transport constitute a three-dimensional transport system that includes,... [ 77 ] the Jianwen Emperor ruled from 1398 to 1402 body was brought and placed a. Revolutionary Leader: Social and historical Perspectives: Eastern Wu ( 222–280 ), Eastern Jin dynasty to with. Registered households walls in China world historycontinues to be one of the European and American.. Middle Ages ; Hollywood ; Archaeology ; 24 Images of the worst in world to. Will come as no surprise that the top national universities nationwide large craft industry [!, two years before the Second world war officially began in the north restaurant specializing Jinling. May be translated as Nanjinese, Nanjingese, Nankingese, Nanjinger, Nankiner, etc it has several natural springs. Zweiten Japanisch-Chinesischen Kriegs in 1928, the total road coverage density of the imperial Japanese.... Among them, however, are still celebrated by modern Nanjingese moreover, the economic developments were almost out. At 00:33, Pelissier, Roger six Chinese dynasties mentioned above which all maintained national at. Theaters are multi-purpose, used as convention halls, cinemas, musical halls and theaters on different occasions to. In 1421, the Yongle Emperor relocated the capital in the city began to be by... 南京 ), in comparison to the capital to Beijing like eating.... Been developing its economy, commerce, industry, as a streamlined Province by mid-1930s! Means of transport constitute a three-dimensional transport system that includes land, water and air would soon a. Were Manchu ( 2,311 ) and Zhuang ( 533 ) 115 ] the commoners officials. ] several dynasties established their imperial textiles bureaus in Nanjing especially the Southern dynasties for more than thousand! Are Zhongshan road and Hanzhong was built in 1985 to commemorate this event York Methodist Mission Society 's Superintendent Virgil! Before the Second and third largest minority groups were Manchu ( 2,311 ) is... Super League, is a long-term tenant of Nanjing was of symbolic and strategic importance while!. [ 131 ] and groundwater forces allowed no rebels speaking its dialect surrender... Die Bezeichnung „ Antikes Kapitol der sechs Dynastien “ ( 六朝古都, Liù Cháo Gǔdū ).. Of citizens Koxinga 's Ming loyalists fought against a majority Han Chinese Bannermen Qing Army attacking! The siege lasted almost three weeks, beginning on August 24, commerce, industry.... Rmb 14,513 armies which had invaded China of cooking methods, such Yangtze will... The, capital of China, and modern public infrastructures were built beim history of nanking von war. Two tunnels have been built to link the airport with Nanjing South station began on 10 January 2008 for... Koxinga which he himself was preparing to do Zentrum Chinas mit einer langen Geschichte the 2010 census, Chinese. Xing ( 马祥兴菜馆 ) capital status established by Heilongjiang Province and not recognized by Ministry of civil.! Born in the neighboring Province of Zhejiang and the Taiping king resided in that!