Other, more student-oriented places are to be found near to Nanjing University and Nanjing Normal University. Nanjing is endowed with rich natural resources, which include more than 40 kinds of minerals. After the Reform and Opening recovering market economy, the state-owned enterprises found themselves incapable of competing with efficient multinational firms and local private firms, hence were either mired in heavy debt or forced into bankruptcy or privatization and this resulted in large numbers of laid-off workers who were technically not unemployed but effectively jobless.  On 24 February 1425, he appointed Admiral Zheng He as the defender of Nanjing and ordered him to continue his command over the Ming treasure fleet for the city's defense.. With Hugo Armstrong, Rosalind Chao, Stephen Dorff, John Getz. The bridge was a source of pride and an important symbol of modern China, having been built and designed by the Chinese themselves following failed surveys by other nations and the reliance on and then rejection of Soviet expertise. The urban area had a population of 6.47 million people. For other uses, see, Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city in Jiangsu, People's Republic of China, Location of Nanjing City jurisdiction in Jiangsu.  Boating at night in the river was a main attraction of the city. bSub-provincial cities as provincial capitals. 2004 - Longtan Containers Port Area opens. Nanjing is one of the top three Chinese scientific research centers (behind Beijing and Shanghai), according to the Nature Index, especially strong in the chemical sciences. „Metropole der zehn Dynastien“ (十朝都會 / 十朝都会, Shí Cháo Dūhuì). The invading Japanese ran over Nanking, which was the capital of China at that time, butchering at least 300,000 Chinese civilians and raping 20,000 to 80,000 women.  The expansion of the Metro network will greatly facilitate intracity transport and reduce the currently heavy traffic congestion. Shortly after the unification of the region, the Western Jin dynasty collapsed.  The ratio of college students to total population ranks No.1 among large cities nationwide. Koxinga's forces were unable to maintain a complete encirclement, which enabled the city to obtain supplies and even reinforcements—though cavalry attacks by the city's forces were successful even before reinforcements arrived. This page was last edited on 7 November 2020, at 00:33. Today, with a long cultural tradition and strong support from local educational institutions, Nanjing is commonly viewed as a "city of culture" and one of the more pleasant cities to live in China. Most of the minority nationalities resided in Jianye District, comprising 9.13 percent of the district's population.. In the 1960s, the first Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge was completed, and served as the only bridge crossing over the Lower Yangtze in eastern China at that time. The tragic Nanking Massacre was widely unknown in the West until a Chinese-American author brought the harsh reality of Japanese occupation to light. The city has a number of other names, and some historical names are now used as names of districts of the city; among them there is the name Jiangning or Kiangning (江寧), whose former character Jiang (江, Yangtze) is the former part of the name Jiangsu and latter character Ning (寧, simplified form 宁; 'Peace') is the short name of Nanjing. The birth rate was 8.86 percent and the death rate was 6.88 percent. Under the Qing dynasty (1644–1911), the Nanjing area was known as Jiangning and served as the seat of government for the Viceroy of Liangjiang. It is considered a conservative and traditional troupe. The northern part of the lower Yangtze drainage basin is the Huai River basin and the southern part is the Zhe River basin; they are connected by the Grand Canal east of Nanjing. It has been one of the world's largest cities, enjoying peace and prosperity despite wars and disasters. Lexington books. Tunnel, Fifth Nanjing Yangtze Bridge. Inside the city of Nanjing, there are 230 km (140 mi) of highways, with a highway coverage density of 3.38 kilometers per hundred square kilometers (5.44 mi/100 sq mi). As Nanjing was the capital of the Ming dynasty, the industries further expanded, where both state-owned and numerous private businesses served the imperial court. Jiangsu Art Gallery is the largest gallery in Jiangsu Province, presenting some of the best traditional and contemporary art pieces of China like the historical Master Ho-Kan; many other smaller-scale galleries, such as Red Chamber Art Garden and Jinling Stone Gallery, also have their own special exhibitions. The court of Da Chu, a short-lived puppet state established by the Jurchens, and the court of Song were once in the city.  It was the site of a Qing Army garrison. , At the time of the 2010 census, the total population of the City of Nanjing was 8.005 million. The city is planning to complete a 17-line Metro and light-rail system by 2030. Industries of information technology, energy saving and environmental protection, new energy, smart power grid and intelligent equipment manufacturing have become pillar industries. A lot of government buildings, residential houses, and modern public infrastructures were built. Both of these two are comprehensive sports centers, including stadium, gymnasium, natatorium, tennis court, etc. [f], Nanjing borders Yangzhou to the northeast (one town downstream when following the north bank of the Yangtze); Zhenjiang to the east (one town downstream when following the south bank of the Yangtze); and Changzhou to the southeast. Into the first half of the twentieth century after the establishment of ROC, Nanjing gradually shifted from being a production hub towards being a heavy consumption city, mainly because of the rapid expansion of its wealthy population after Nanjing once again regained the political spotlight of China. In the Tang and Song dynasties, Nanjing was a place where poets gathered and composed poems reminiscent of its luxurious past; during the Ming and Qing dynasties, the city was the official imperial examination center (Jiangnan Examination Hall) for the Jiangnan region, again acting as a hub where different thoughts and opinions converged and thrived. In 1937, the Empire of Japan started a full-scale invasion of China after invading Manchuria in 1931, beginning the Second Sino-Japanese War (often considered a theater of World War II). Nanjing is at the intersection of the Yangtze River, an east–west water transport artery, and the Nanjing–Beijing railway, a north–south land transport artery, hence the name “door of the east and west, throat of the south and north”. Nanjing Normal University, Suiyuan campus, The sister city relationship with Nagoya in Japan was suspended on February 21, 2012, following public comments by Nagoya mayor Takashi Kawamura denying the Nanking Massacre.. Jinling City, 333 BCE), Source: China Meteorological Administration (precipitation days, sunshine data 1971–2000), Former Central Committee of KMT Buildings (, Nanking Officials Residence Cluster along Yihe Road (, Former Republic of China Military Academy Buildings (, Former Bank of China Nanking Branch Building (, Former Bank of Communications Nanking Branch Building (, Former Central Bank of ROC Nanking Branch Building (, Former Macklin Hospital Buildings (Gulou Hospital) (, Aviation Martyrs of WWII Memorial Cemetery (, This page was last edited on 19 December 2020, at 19:47.  Officials blamed the dense pollution on lack of wind, automobile exhaust emissions under low air pressure, and coal-powered district heating system in north China. The Nanjing Youth Olympic Games Organizing Committee (NYOGOC) worked together with the International Olympic Committee (IOC) to attract the best young athletes from around the world to compete at the highest level. 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